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中外教育思想汇编七:苏霍姆林斯基和他的主要教育思想

发布时间:2013-03-21

 

YI、TICHUYAOBAQUANTIXUESHENGPEIYANGCHENGGEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHANDEREN

SUHUOMULINSIJIZHICHU,SHEHUIZHUYIJIAOYUDERENWUJIUSHIYAOPEIYANG“GEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHANDEREN”。SUOWEI“GEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHAN”,ANZHAOTADEYIJIAN,JI“YIWEIZHELAODONGYURENZAIGELEIHUODONGZHONGDEFENGFUJINGSHENDETONGYI,YIWEIZHERENZAIPINXINGSHANGYIJITONGTARENDEXIANGHUGUANXISHANGDEDAODECHUNJIE,YIWEIZHETIPODEWANMEI、SHENMEIXUQIUHEQUWEIDEFENGFUJISHEHUIHEGERENXINGQUDEDUOYANG”TAZHICHU:“ZAIZHEIGEHEXIEZHONG,MEIYOUKENENG,YEMEIYOUBIYAOGUIDINGSHENMESHIZHUYAODE,SHENMESHICIYAODE。WOMENZHINENGSHUO,QUANMIANFAZHANDEMOUXIEFANGMIANDUIYURENDEZHENGGEJINGSHENSHIJIEDEYINGXIANGKENENGBIQITADEFANGMIANDAYIXIE。”TONGSHI,“GEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHAN”YEBUSHIYIWEIZHEYIGERENKEYIBUTINGDICONGYIZHONGZHIYEZHUANDAOLINGYIZHONGZHIYE,ERSHIZHIMEIYIGERENZAIJINGTONGZIJISUOCONGSHIDEZHUANYEDETONGSHI,HAIYOUXINGQUHENENGLIJINRURENHEQITADEZHISHILINGYU。TASHUO:“QUANMIANFAZHANDESIXIANGSHIGENYANGYANGDOUZUOERYOUBUQIUSHENJIESHIHAOBUXIANGRONGDE。”

SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,ZAIXUEXIAOZHONGDEYU、ZHIYU、TIYU、MEIYUHELAODONGJIAOYUDOUSHIZHONGYAODE,MEIYOUDIYI、DIERZHIFEN。TASHUO:“ZAIJIAOYUZUOYONGDEWANZHENGDETIXILI,NEIPAZHISHIHULVELEQIZHONGDEYIGEHUANJIEDOUHUIPOHUAIZHEIGEYOUJIDETONGYI”。TAQIANGDIAODAODEMIANMAOZAIMEIGERENSHENSHANGQIZHEZHUDAODEZUOYONG。TARENWEI“SHEHUIYAOQIUXUEXIAOPEIYANGCHULAIDEREN,BULUNTACONGSHISHENMEGONGZUO,DOUYINGGAISHIYIGEDAODEGAOSHANGDEREN”。YINCI,XUEXIAOZHONGDERENHEGONGZUODOUYINGDANGBAOHANDAODEJIAOYUDEYIYI,FAHUIDEYUDEZUOYONG。TAYEQIANGDIAOZHIYUDEZHONGYAOXING,RENWEI“WUZHIDERENDUIYUSHEHUILAISHUOSHIWEIXIANDE,”“XUEXIAOYINGDANGBURANGRENHEYIGEMEIYOUZAIZHILIFANGMIANSHOUGUOXUNLIANDERENJINRUSHENGHUO。”TAHAIFEICHANGZHONGSHILAODONGJIAOYUHEMEIYU,QIANGDIAOKEWAIYUXIAOWAIJIAOYUDEZUOYONG。TARENWEI,RUGUOBUJIXUESHENGTIGONGZUGOUDEZIYOUHUODONGSHIJIAN,YAOFAZHANTAMENDEXINGQU、AIHAOHECAINENGSHIBANBUDAODE,YAOPEIYANGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHANDERENYESHIBUKENENGDE。HELIDEXUEXIZHIDU,KENEIWAIJIAOXUEDEYOUJIJIEHE,JIUSHIDE、ZHI、TI、MEIHELAODONGJIAOYURONGWEIYITI,FAZHANLEXUESHENGXUEXIDEJIJIXING、ZHUDONGXINGHECHUANGZAOXING,WEITAMENSHENGXUEJIUYEDAXIALIANGHAODEJICHU。

ZAISHISHI“GEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHAN”JIAOYUSHI,SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,BIXUSHIRENDEDUOZHONGDUOYANGDECAINENG、TIANFU、YIXIANG、XINGQUHEAIHAODENGGEXINGTEDIANDEDAOCHONGFENFAHUI。TAQIANGDIAOSHUO:WOMENDEJIAOYUMUBIAO“JIUSHIRANGZOUXIANGSHENGHUODEMEIYIGEQINGNIANNANNVDECAINENGDEDAOZUICHONGFENDEFAHUI。”SUHUOMULINSIJIKANLAI,GEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHANSHIDUIMEIYIGESHOUJIAOYUZHEDEGONGTONGYAOQIU;ERGEZHONGCAINENG、XINGQU、AIHAODECHONGFENFAHUIZEYINRENERYI,YINCI,TAYAOQIUJIAOSHIBIXUYIGUANQIEERYOUSHENSISHULVDEJINSHENTAIDUQUDUIDAIMEIGEHAIZIDEYOUQUEDIAN,JIELISHEFABAJIAOXUEHEJIAOYUGONGZUOANPAIDESHIMEIYIGEXUESHENGDOUNENGXIANSHICHUTADETIANFU,ZHAODAOTAXIAIDEHUODONG,BINGZAIZHEIFANGMIANCHENGWEINENGSHOU。

ZONGZHI,SUHUOMULINSIJITICHUYAOBAQUANTIXUESHENGPEIYANGCHENGGEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHANDEREN,JISHI“GEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHAN”JIAOYULILUNDECHUFADIAN,YOUSHITADEGUISUDIAN。ZHEIYIPEIYANGMUBIAOSHIYI“QUANMIANFAZHAN”WEIZHUTI,BA“GEXINGFAZHAN”、“HEXIEFAZHAN”YU“QUANMIANFAZHAN”SANZHERONGHEZAIYIQI,CHENGWEIHUXIANGLIANXI、HUXIANGSHENTOU、HUXIANGCUJINDETONGYIZHENGTI。

ER、LUNZHENGLEDAODEJIAOYUDENEIRONGHEFANGFA

ZAISUHUOMULINSIJI“GEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHAN”DELILUNZHONG,DAODEJIAOYUJUYUZHUDAODEDIWEI,TARENWEI,CONGXUEXIAOPEIYANGCHULAIDEREN,BUGUANTACONGSHISHENMEZHIYE,DOUBIXUSHOUXIANSHIYIGEYOULIANGHAODAODEPINZHIDEREN。

TASHOUXIANTICHULEDEYUDEZHUYAONEIRONGHERENWU。

1.SHULIERTONGJIANDINGDEGONGCHANZHUYIDAODEXINNIAN。SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,DAODEXINNIANSHIDAODEFAZHANDEZUIGAOMUBIAO,HUOZHESHUOSHI“DUIJIANCHIZHENLI、ZHENGMINGZIJIGUANDIANDEZHENGQUEXING、BINGWEICISUISHIZHUNBEIZUOCHURENHEXISHENGDEYIZHONGRECHENQIWANG”。DAODEXINNIANYIDANXINGCHENG,JIUCHENGWEIGERENXINMUZHONGWANQUANZHENGQUEDEZHENLI,CHENGWEIRENDEYIZHONGNENGDONGLILIANG;FANZHI,YIGERENRUGUOQUEFAJIANDINGZHENGQUEDEDAODEXINNIAN,BIANMEIYOUZHENGQUEDEFANGXIANG。TARENWEI,GONGCHANZHUYIXINNIAN,SHIJIFAERTONGHEQINGSHAONIANBUDUANCHANSHENGCHONGGAODE、CHUNJIEDE、MEIHAODEYUANWANGDEYUANQUAN。RUGUOXUESHENGNENGCONGNEIXINZHENZHENGRENSHIDAOGONGCHANZHUYIXINNIANDECHONGGAOMUDE,NEIME,TAJIUHUIWEISHEHUIDELIYIERTOUSHENYUSHENGHUO。

2.PEIYANGERTONGFENGFUDEAIZUGUO、AIRENMINDEDAODEQINGGAN。SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,DAODEQINGGANNAISHI“DAODEXINNIAN、YUANZEXINGHEJINGSHENLILIANGDEHEXINHEXUEROU;MEIYOUQINGGAN,DAODEJIUHUIBIANCHENGKUZAOWUWEIDEKONGHUA,ZHINENGPEIYANGWEIJUNZI”。ZAITAKANLAI,XUEXIAOYINGYOUQIANRUSHEN,YOUJINJIYUAN,PEIYANGXUESHENGDEDAODEQINGGAN。LIRU,XIANJIAOYUXUESHENGREAIZIJIDEMUQIN,LEJIEHETITIEMUQINDEYOUSHANGHENANCHU,LISUONENGJIDIFENDANMUQINDEJIAWUSUOSHI;YOUCIKUOERGUANGZHI,WEIYEYE、NAINAI、FUQIN、XIONGZHANG、DIMEIXIANCHUAIXIN,FUCHUAIXING;ZAIKUOERGUANGZHI,WEIJIAXIANGXIANCHUAIXIN,FUCHUXINLAO,ZUOCHUGONGXIAN。JIXUKUOERGUANGZHI,WEIJIAXIANGFULAOXIANGQIN,YOUQISHIGULAOBINGCANXIANGQIN,XIANCHUAIXIN,SHIYISHANXING。ZAIXIAYIBU,WEISUBUXIANGSHIDELUYUTONGBAO,XIANCHUAIXIN,ZUOCHUSHANJU,DENGDENG。SUHUOMULINSIJIDUANYAN,RUGUOYIGEHAIZILIANZIJIDEMUQINDOUBUAI,TAHUIAIZIJIDEZUGUOMA?AICHUYUFENGXIAN,FENGXIANZHONGSHENGCHUQINGGANMEI。

3.PEIYANGERTONGLIANGHAODEDAODEXIGUAN。ANZHAOSUHUOMULINSIJIDEYIJIAN,DAODEJUYOUJICHENGXING,BINGQIECUNZAIZHEQUANRENLEIDEJIBENDAODEZHUNZE。ZAIRENDEGEXINGXINGCHENGZHONG,TONGNIANSHIYIGEGUANJIANSHIQI。YINCIBIXUCONGYOUNIANKAISHI,JIUDUIERTONGJINXINGDAODEJIAOYU,SHITAMENZHUBUDILIJIESHEHUIDAODEDEJIBENZHUNZE,JINERYANGCHENGLIANGHAODEDAODEXIGUAN。SUHUOMULINSIJIYOUQIQIANGDIAOBA“TONGQINGREN、GUANXINREN”SHIWEIDIANJIXINGPINZHI,TARENWEI,HAIZIZAITONGNIANSHIQIDUIRENDEKUNAN、BUXING、FANNAOHEGUDANTEBIEMINGAN,CISHIPEIYANGTAMENZHEIFANGMIANDEPINZHIZUIWEIYOUXIAO。TAYERENWEI,REAILAODONG,REAILAODONGCHENGGUO,REAILAODONGZHE,DUIERTONGYESHIJIWEIZHONGYAODEPINDE。SUHUOMULINSIJIQUEXIN:RUGUOERTONGDONGDEWEIBIERENDEXINGFUHEHUANLEERFUCHULAODONG,BINGWEICIERLIULEHAN,NEIMETADEXINJIUHUIBIANDESHANLIANG、MINGANHEWENROU。YUCIXIANGFAN,RUGUOYIGEERTONGZAITONGNIANQIBINGMEIYOUXINGCHENGSHANGSHULIANGHAODEDAODEXIGUANDEHUA,NEIME,SUOZAOCHENGDESUNSHIJIANGSHIWUFAMIBUDE。

ZAIDUIERTONGJINXINGDAODEJIAOYUSHI,SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEIYINGGAIZUNXUNYIXIATUJINGHEFANGFA:

1.TONGGUOJIJIDESHIJIANHUODONG,XINGCHENGERTONGLIANGHAODEDAODEPINZHI。SUHUOMULINSIJIZHICHU,YAOZAIERTONGSHENSHANGQUDIAOMOUZHONGBULIANGDEXINGWEI,YANGCHENGMOUZHONGHAODEPINDE,JINKAOZUZHI、JINGGAOSHIYUANYUANBUGOUDE,HAIBIXUZAIJIAOYUDEYINDAOXIA,RANGERTONGZIJIQUJIJISHIJIAN,ZOUSHANGZHENGQUEDEDAOLU,XIANGXINZIJIYOUKEFUKUNNANDELILIANG。TADUANYAN:ERTONGLIANGHAODEDAODEPINZHI,ZHIYOUYIKAOTAMENZISHENDENULISHIJIAN,CAINENGXINGCHENGHEGONGGU;TAMENZUODEHAOSHIYUEDUO,JIHUAISHIDEKECHENGZHIJIYEJIUYUESHAO。

2.JIANCHIZHENGMIANJIAOYU,SHIYOULIANGPINZHIZAIERTONGSHENSHANGZHANZHIPEIDIWEI。SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,ZAIRENHEYIGEERTONGDAODEPINZHIDEXINGCHENGGUOCHENGZHONG,DOUCUNZAIJIJIYINSUHEXIAOJIYINSUDEDOUZHENG。YINCI,ZAIJIAOYUERTONG,TEBIESHIQUEDIAN,CUOWUJIAODUODEXUESHENGSHI,BIXUJIANCHIZHENGMIANJIAOYU,CHONGFENDIAODONGQIERTONGDEJIJIYINSU,SHIYOULIANGPINZHIZAITAMENSHENSHANGZHANZHIPEIDIWEI,ZHEIYANGCAINENGHUANQIERTONGDUIMEIHAOSHIWUDEXIANGWANG,BANGZHUTAMENSHULIJIJISHANGJINDEXINXIN,YANGCHENGZIWOJIAOYU、ZIWOGUANLIDENENGLI,WEIJINYIBUJIESHOUJIAOYUHEBUDUANKEFUXIAOJIYINSUCHUANGZAOTIAOJIAN。

3.ZHUAHAOJITIJIAOYU,CHONGFENFAHUIXUESHENGJITIDEJIAOYUZUOYONG。SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,WAIBUHUANJINGSHIERTONGJINGSHENSHENGHUODEJUEDINGXINGYINSU。XUESHENGDESHENGHUOHUANJINGJIUSHIXUEXIAOJITIHEBANJIJITI。ZHEIGEJITISHIXUESHENGCHENGZHANGDE“TURANG”,DUIXUESHENGDEYISHIQINGXIANG、XINNIAN、LIXIANG、XINGQUHENENGLIDENGGEXINGTEDIANDEXINGCHENGJUYOUJUDADEZUOYONG。TASHUO:“JITIHUODONGZHONGXIANJINDESHEHUISIXIANGZHANXIANDEYUEQINGCHU,ZUOWEISHEHUIXIAOXIBAODEJITIDEZUOYONGYUEDA,NEIMETADEJIAOYULILIANGYEJIUYUEDA。”YINCI,JIAOYUZHEYINGYOUMUDE、YOUJIHUADEZUZHIHEPEIYANGXUESHENGDEJIANQUANDEJITI,TONGGUOJITIZUZHIDEGEZHONGYOUJIAOYUYIYIDEHUODONG,BINGJIANLIHELIDEJIAOWANG,YUJIAOYUYUJIAOXUE、SHEHUIHUODONGHEXUESHENGDEJITIHUODONGZHONG。

4.DUOKUANSHU、SHAOCHENGFA,CHENGFAXUYIJIAOYUWEIJICHU。ANZHAOSUHUOMULINSIJIDEYIJIAN,CHENGFASHIYIZHONGTEBIECIJIRENHEWEIXIANDEFANGFA,ZAISHIYONGCHENGFASHI,HENDUOJIAOSHIRONGYIFANCUOWU。SUOYI,TARENZHANGZHIYAOERTONGBUSHIGUYIZUOE,YIBANDOUBUYINGJIYICHENGFA。SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,KUANSHUCAINENGCHUJIERTONGZIZUNXINZUIMINGANDEBUFEN,SHIERTONGCHANSHENGCHUYIZHONGYAOQIUGAIJINCUOWUDEYIYUANHEJIJIXING。TASHUO:“BUYAOJIYUCHUFENXUESHENG,YAOHAOHAOXIANGYIXIANG,SHISHENMECUSHITAFANZHEIYANGHUONEIYANGDECUOWUDE;YAOSHESHENCHUDIWEIHAIZIMENXIANGYIXIANG,NEIMEJIUKEXIANGXINTAMENHUITONGGUOZISHENDENULILAIGAIJINCUOWUDE。”

SAN、CHANGDAOFAZHANXUESHENGCHUANGZAOXINGSIWEINENGLI

  ZAISUHUOMULINSIJIDEJIAOYUSIXIANGTIXIZHONG,TABAZHIYUFANGZAIYIGESHIFENZHONGYAODEWEIZHI,RENWEIZHIYUDUIYURENZHISUOYIBIYAO,BUJINSHIWEILELAODONG,ERQIESHIWEILEJINGSHENSHENGHUODECHONGSHI。TAJINYIBUZHICHU,ZHIYUDERENWUSHOUXIANSHISHIXUESHENGZAISUOYOUXUEKEFANGMIANZHANGWOSHENKEERLAOGUDEZHISHI,DANJUEBUNENGBAZHIYUDERENWUJIANDANDIGUIJIEWEICHUANSHOUZHISHI。ZAIJIAOXUEGUOCHENGZHONGHAIYOUYIGEZHONGYAODEMUBIAO,JIUSHIFAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLI,PEIYANGXUESHENGDECHUANGZAOXINGCAINENGHEDUIZHILIHUODONGDEXINGQU。TASHUO:JIAOYU“ZHEISHOUXIANSHIHUOSHENGSHENGDE、XUNGENJIUDIDE、TANSUOXINGDESIWEI”。MEIYOUSIKAOJIUMEIYOUFAXIAN;MEIYOUFAXIAN,JIUTANBUSHANGJIAOYUGONGZUODECHUANGZAOXING;FAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLIYUCHUANGZAOXING,SHI“GEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHAN”DEHEXIN。SUOYI,SUHUOMULINSIJIZAIZHIYUZHONG,SHIZHONGBAFAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLIYUCHUANGZAOXINGFANGZAISHOUWEI,BINGZONGJIECHUFAZHANXUESHENGSIWEINENGLIDEYUANZEYUFANGFA。

TASHOUXIANTICHUFAZHANXUESHENGSIWEINENGLIHECHUANGZAOXINGDEYUANZE。

1.YIKAOZHOUWEIHUANJINGFAZHANSIWEIDEYUANZE

SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,XUESHENGDEZHILIFAZHANZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGQUJUEYUZHOUWEIHUANJING。ERTONGKAISHIMAIBU,SHOUXIANRENSHIDESHITASHENGHUODEZHOUWEIHUANJING。ERTONGDEDANAOSHIZAIDUIZHOUWEIHUANJINGDESHIWUHEXIANXIANGDEDUOFANGMIANDERENSHIGUOCHENGZHONG,DEDAOFAZHANHEZENGQIANGDE。YINCI,TAQIANGDIAOFUMUHEJIAOSHIYAOYOUYISHIDIYINDAOERTONGRENSHIZHOUWEIHUANJINGZHONGGEZHONGSHIWUHEXIANXIANGZHIJIANDEYINGUOLIANXI,RANGERTONGFAXIANSHIWUDEGEZHONGTEDIAN,SHIZHOUWEIHUANJINGBIANCHENGERTONGSIWEIHUODONGDEFAYUANDI。

2.ZAIJIJIHUODONGZHONGFAZHANSIWEIDEYUANZE

SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,XUESHENGDEJIJIHUODONGSHILIANJIEYUYANHESIWEIDEQIAOLIANG。TABAOKUOLEKEWAI、LAODONGDENGDUOFANGMIANHUODONG。TARENWEIXUESHENGDEHUODONGBIXUYUYUNYONGZHISHIJIEHEQILAI,ZHEIYANGCAINENGYINQIXUESHENGJIJIDESIWEIHUODONG,CAINENGJIASHENXUESHENGDUIJIAOCAIDESHISHI、SHIWU、XIANXIANGYIJIXIANGHUYINGUOGUANXIDELIJIE。SUOYI,TAYAOQIUJIAOSHIDUIXUESHENGDEGEZHONGHUODONGYAOZUOJINGXIDEANPAI,JIYAOSHEJIXUESHENGDEHUODONGFANGSHIHENEIRONG,YOUYAOZHANGWOXUESHENGDESIWEITEDIAN,SHIXUESHENGSIWEINENGLIDEFAZHANZHUOYOUCHENGXIAO。

3.TONGGUOKENEIWAIJIAOXUEFAZHANSIWEIDEYUANZE

SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,TONGGUOKENEIWAIJIAOXUEFAZHANXUESHENGDEGANJUE、ZHIJUE、XIANGXIANGHEHUANXIANGDENGRENSHIHUODONG,SHIFAZHANXUESHENGSIWEINENGLIDEZHONGYAOTIAOJIAN。TACONGDUONIANDEJINGYANCHUFA,SHENXINYINGDANGBAXUESHENGDAIDAOZIRANJIEZHONGQU,DAIDAOHUAYUAN、SHULINJIAN、HUACAOSHENGKAIDETIANYEHEHEANBIANQU,RANGXUESHENGGANSHOUDAODAZIRANDEMEI,SHITAMENDUIDAZIRANDEWANSHIWANWUGANDAOYOUZHONGDEJINGQIHEZANTAN;ERZHEIZHONGFUYOUGANQINGDERENSHI,NENGJIFAXUESHENGDANAODEJIJIXING。

4.TONGGUOPEIYANGFENXINENGLIJINXINGSIWEIFAZHANDEYUANZE

SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,YITIAOCHOUXIANGZHENLI,GAIKUODESHISHIFANWEIYUEGUANG,ZHEITIAOZHENLIDESHIJIHEZAIJIYIZHONGDEBAOCHI,JIUYUEYAOYIKAOXUESHENGDULIFENXIHESIKAOGUODESHISHIDEDUOSHAO;ERZHIYOUZAIRENSHIHEFENXISHISHIDEGUOCHENGZHONG,LIJIELECHOUXIANGZHENLIDESHIZHI,BINGSHIYONGZHEITIAOZHENLIQUJIESHISHISHI,XUESHENGCAINENGHENHAODISHIJIZHEITIAOCHOUXIANGZHENLI,BATALAOGUBAOCHIZAIJIYILI。

5.LIYONGERTONGXINGXIANGSIWEIJINXINGSIWEIFAZHANDEYUANZE

SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,YAOSHENRUTANSUOERTONGDEJINGSHENSHIJIE,ZAIJIAOYUHEJIAOXUEGUOCHENGZHONG,JIUYAOCHONGFENLIYONGERTONGDEXINGXIANGSIWEIQUFAZHANERTONGDECHOUXIANGSIWEI。

QICI,SUHUOMULINSIJIGAIKUOLEFAZHANXUESHENGSIWEINENGLIDEJUTIFANGFA:

1.LIYONG“SIWEIKE”FAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLI

SUHUOMULINSIJIZAITADEXUESHENGZHONGSHEYOU“SIWEIKE”。SHEZHEIYIKECHENGDEMUDEZAIYUSHIXUESHENG“SHENGDONGDI、ZHIJIEDIGANZHIZHOUWEISHIJIEZHONGDEXINGXIANG、HUAMIAN、XIANXIANGHESHIWU,BINGJINXINGLUOJIFENXI,HUOQUXINZHISHI,JINXINGSIWEIXUNLIAN,ZHAOYINGUOGUANXI”。JIAOSHIDERENWUJIUSHITONGGUO“SIWEIKE”FAZHANXUESHENGDEGUANCHANENGLI,BINGYICIWEIJICHUFAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLI。

SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,YAOSHANGHAO“SIWEIKE”JIUYAOYOUJIHUADIDAILINGXUESHENGDAODAZIRANZHONGQULVXING。ZIRANJIEKEYIJIFAXUESHENGJIJIDESIWEIHUODONG,SHITAMENJUYOUXIANMINGSHENGDONGDEXIANGXIANGLI、MINRUIDEJIYILIHEFENGFUDEQINGGANFANYING。TASHUO,ZAICHUANTONGJIAOXUEZHONG,WEISHENMEYOUDEXUESHENGZAIXIAOXUEXISANNIANRENGJIBUZHUYUFAGUIZE,NONGBUDONG9CHENGYI6DENGYUDUOSHAO?QIYUANYINJIUZAIYUZHISHIYUSIWEIFAZHANZHIJIANJINGCHANGTUOJIE,JIAOSHIWANGWANGBAZHANGWOYIDINGSHULIANGDEZHISHIZUOWEIJIAOXUEDEMUDE,MEIYOUBAJIAOXUESHIWEIPEIYANGFADADEZHILIDESHOUDUAN,ERZHIYOUJUBEILEZHEIZHONGFADADEZHILI,CAIHUISHIXUEXISUIZHEXINZHISHIDEZHANGWOBIANDEYUELAIYUERONGYI,FANGZHIJIAOXUEGUOCHENGYUZHILIFAZHANTUOJIE——WOMENRENWEIZHEIJIHUSHIZUIZHONGYAODEJIAOYURENWU。SUHUOMULINSIJIGAOSUJIAOSHI,BUYAORANGXUEXIAODEDAMENBAERTONGDEYISHIGENZHOUWEIDESHIJIEGEJUEKAILAI,YINWEIERTONGDEYISHIHEJIYILIDEFAZHANLAIYUANYUZHOUWEISHIJIE,NEIMESUIZHEERTONGDERUXUE,TADEJIYIDEMINRUIXING、SIWEIDEXIANMINGXINGBUJINBUHUIXUERUO,FANERHUIZENGQIANG。

SUHUOMULINSIJITONGSHIYEZHICHU,BUNENGKUADAZIRANJIEZAIJIAOYUZHONGDEZUOYONG。ZHIYOUJIAOSHIZHIDAOXUESHENGQURENSHIZIRANJIE,YONGSIXIANGQUZUANYANZIRANDEYINGUOLIANXIDESHIHOU,ZIRANJIECAINENGCHENGWEIJIAOYUDEQIANGDAYUANQUAN,SUOYIJIAOSHIYINGYINDAOXUESHENGQUFENXI、YANJIUZHOUWEISHIJIEDEGEZHONGWENTI,SHIERTONGDEXINGXIANGSIWEIZHUJIANXIANGCHOUXIANGSIWEIGUODU。

2.TICHANGYANJIUXINGXUEXIFA

SUHUOMULINSIJIZHICHU,YANJIUXINGXUEXIZAIRENWENXUEKEHEZIRANXUEKEZHONGDOUKEYUNYONG。ERTONGZAIFENXIMOUZHONGXIANXIANGSHIZAIDUODACHENGDUSHANGJIJIDIBIAOXIANLEZHIHUIDENULI,BUJINJUEDINGZHEZHISHIDESHENDU,ERQIEJUEDINGZHEXUESHENGZAISHIJIANZHONGYUNYONGZHISHIDENENGLI。TAJINGCHANGZAIKETANGSHANGGUANCHAXUESHENGDONGNAOFENXIJIAOCAIDEQINGKUANG。LIRUYOUDEXUESHENGFENXIYUYANXIANXIANGSHI,JINXINGDUIBIXUEXI,ZIJUEDIZHANGWOYUFADEGUILV。TATEBIEQIANGDIAOYAORANGXUESHENGQUYANJIUHEFENXINEIXIEMEIYOUMINGQUECHANSHUDE、SIHUSHIYINZANGDEYINGUOLIANXIDESHIWU,JIUGENGNENGFAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLI。RUGUOXUESHENGZAIGAIKUODALIANGSHISHIDEJICHUSHANG,NENGGOUFENXIXIANXIANGZHONGDENEIZAILIANXI,BINGQUDEGUILVXINGDEZHISHI,TARENWEIZHEISHIJIQIBAOGUIDE。

YINCI,TAGAOSUJIAOSHI,KETANGJIAOXUEYAOQUDELIANGHAODEXIAOGUO,JIUYAOBAYANJIUXINGXUEXIYUNYONGYUKETANGJIAOXUEDESHIZHONG。ZHIYAOXUESHENGDUIZIRANHESHEHUIXIANXIANG、WENHUAKEXUEZHISHIHESHENGCHANLAODONGCAIQUYANJIUDETAIDU,BUJINNENGWAJUECHUGENGDUODESHISHICAILIAO,ERQIENENGCONGDALIANGDESHISHIZHONGGUINACHUGUILVXINGDEZHISHI。YOUJINGYANDEJIAOSHIBUNENGBAXIANCHENGDEJIELUN、DINGLIHEZHENGQUEDEZHENGMINGGAOSUXUESHENG,ERSHIYINDAOXUESHENGTONGGUOGUANCHA、SHIYAN、SHENGCHANLAODONG、JIAOSHISUOXUSHUDESHISHIQUZHENGMINGYIZHONGJIELUNHEYUANLI,HUOZHETUIFANYIZHONGJIELUNHEYUANLI。ZHEIZHONGFANGFABUJINNENGDIAODONGXUESHENGXUEXIDEXINGQU,ERQIENENGJIASHENDUIJIAOCAIDELIJIE,TONGSHI,XUESHENGSUIZHEXINZHISHIDEZHANGWO,ZUANYANJINGSHEN、ZIXUENENGLIYANGCHENGLE,XUEXIJIUHUIBIANDEYUELAIYUEQINGSONG,YUECHONGMANQUWEI。

3.TONGGUOLIJIEZHISHIFAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLI

SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEI,JIAOSHISHANGMEIJIEKEDOUYAOYOUJUTIDEYAOQIUHEMINGQUEDEMUDE。SHANGKEKAISHI,JIAOSHIJIUYAOGAOSUXUESHENG,SHENMESHILIJIEDEZHONGDIAN,ZAIXUEXIJIAOCAIDESIWEIGUOCHENGZHONGYAODADAOSHENMEMUDE。TASHUO,YAOSHIXUESHENGDUIWENTIDESIKAOCHENGWEIMINGFUQISHIDENAOLILAODONG,JIUBIXUSHIXUESHENGDESIWEIJUYOUMINGQUEDEMUDEXING;JIARUXUESHENGDANFUZHEJUTIDESIWEIRENWU,JIXUESHENGDESIWEIHUODONGFUYUJIEJUEWENTIDEXINGZHI,XUESHENGDEZHIHUILILIANGJIUHUIYUEJIAJIJIDITOURUDAOWANCHENGRENWUDEHUODONGZHONGQU。ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,XUESHENGZAIXUEXIGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHANGAIHEKUNNANJIUBAOLUDEYUEJIAMINGXIAN,XUESHENGDENAOLILAODONGJIUHUICHENGWEIYIZHONGWEIKEFUKUNNAN、JIJIKAIZHANSIWEIHUODONGDEGUOCHENG。

XUESHENGDESIWEINENGLISHIZAIJIEYIHEKEFUKUNNANZHONGPEIYANGQILAIDE。ERYOUDEJIAOSHIRENWEIBAJIAOCAIJIANGDEYUEMINGBAIYIDONG,XUESHENGDEYIWENJIUHUIYUESHAO,XUESHENGDUIZHISHIDELINGHUIJIUHUIYUESHENKE。SHIJISHANGQIAHAOXIANGFAN,SUHUOMULINSIJIJULEYIGEDIANXINGDELIZILAISHUOMINGZHEIGEWENTI。YOUYIGEXIAOXUEJIAOSHI,WEILEJIANGHAOSUANSHUKE,BATUPIAN、BIAOGE、SHIWUDOUNADAOKETANGSHANGJINXINGYANSHI,BIAOMIANSHANGKANQILAIJINXINGDEHENSHUNLI,DANZHEIGEBANDAOWUNIANJISHI,QUESHIJIAOSHIDACHIYIJING,XUDUOXUESHENGBUHUIZUOYINGYONGTI。SUHUOMULINSIJISHUO,SHISHIRUCI,YINWEINEIWEINVJIAOSHIZAIZHENGZHENGSINIANLIXIAOXINYIYIDIBAOHUXUESHENG,BURANGTAMENPENGDAOKUNNAN,SUOYITAMENSHISHISHANGBINGMEIYOUXUEHUIJIJIDISIKAO。YUSHANGMIANDENEIWEIJIAOSHIXIANGFAN,YOUDEJIAOSHIDUIXUESHENGDEGUANXINSHOUXIANBIAOXIANZAIRANGXUESHENGNONGQINGKEFUSHENMEYANGDEKUNNAN,BINGYINDAOXUESHENGBAZHUYILIJIZHONGDAOKEFUKUNNANSHANGQU。

4.JIEZHUCHOUXIANGGAINIANFAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLI

SUHUOMULINSIJIZHICHU,JIAOSHIZAIYANJIUHETANSUOERTONGDEJINGSHENSHIJIESHI,YAORENZHENSIKAOYIGEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEWENTI,JIUSHIZAIJIAOXUEHEJIAOYUGUOCHENGZHONGRUHELIYONGERTONGDEXINGXIANGSIWEI,BINGZAIXINGXIANGSIWEIDEJICHUSHANGZHUJIANFAZHANQICHOUXIANGSIWEI。CHOUXIANGSIWEIZAISHAONIANQIXUNSUXINGCHENG,ZHEIBUJINSHIZHILIFAZHANDEZHONGYAOQIANTI,ERQIESHIJIEPOUSHENGLIFAZHANDEJICHU。ZHIYOUFAZHANLEXUESHENGDECHOUXIANGGAINIAN,CAINENGSHIDANAODESIWEINENGLIDEYIZENGQIANG,RUGUOBUJIEZHUCHOUXIANGGAINIANFAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLI,ZHILIDEFAZHANSIHUJIUYAOTINGZHI。TAZHICHU,ZAIJIAOXUEGUOCHENGZHONG,RENHEYIGEGAINIAN、PANDUAN、FAZE,DANGXUESHENGHAIMEIYOULIJIETADESHIHOU,BUYINGDANGRANGXUESHENGQUSIJIYINGBEI。SIJIYINGBEIZAIQINGSHAONIANSHIQIBUJINSHIYOUHAIDE,ERQIESHIWEIXIANDE。QINGSHAONIANDEDANAOZAIZHEIGESHIQIKESUXINGFEICHANGDA,SUOYILAOSHIDEMINGZHIZHIDAO,DUIFAZHANTAMENDESIWEINENGLISHIZHIGUANZHONGYAODE。

5.LIYONGKEYUSHIJIANFAZHANXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLI

SUHUOMULINSIJIZAITASUOZAIXUEXIAODEJIAOSHILISHEYOUYIXIEJIAOLUO,TABAZHEIXIEJIAOLUOCHENGWEI“SIKAOZHIJIAO”、“NANSHIZHIJIAO”、“HUANXIANGZHIJIAO”,GONGXUESHENGKEWAIXUEXIZHIYONG。“SIKAOZHIJIAO”YOUDAOXUESHENGCHAOYUEJIAOXUEDAGANGDEFANWEI,XIANGZHEWEIZHIDEYUANFANGTANSUOZHISHIDEHUOHUA。“NANSHIZHIJIAO”FANGZHEJIGEMOXINGDETUZHI,DOUSHIGENJUAOMIAODE、BUTONGXUNCHANGDESHEJISIXIANGZHICHENGDE。YAOBAZHEIZHONGSHEJISIXIANGBIANCHENGJINSHUHESULIAOZHIZUODESHIWU,JIUYAOKEFUHENDADEKUNNAN,YAOJINXINGCHUANGZAOXINGDESIWEIHUODONG。“HUANXIANGZHIJIAO”NENGCONGKEXUEZHISHIDEGOUHUOLIDIANRANQIZHIXIANGDEHUOHUA。XUESHENGZAIZHEILITIHUIDAOLESIKAODEJIANXINHEHUANLE,ZENGQIANGLE“JIASHIZHISHIHEFAZHANZHILIDEZIHAOGAN”。

SI、ZHUZHANGPEIYANGXUESHENGJIANKANGDESHENMEIGUANDIANHENENGLI

SUHUOMULINSIJIQIANGDIAOZHICHU,MEIYUZAI“GEXINGQUANMIANHEXIEFAZHAN”DEJIAOYUZHONGQIZHEHENDADEZUOYONG,TATONGGUOGEZHONGTEYOUDESHOUDUANHETUJING,DUIXUESHENGSHIJIAQIANYIMOHUADEYINGXIANG,QIRENWUSHI“JIAOHUIHAIZINENGCONGZHOUWEISHIJIE(DAZIRAN、YISHU、RENJIGUANXI)DEMEIZHONGKANDAOJINGSHENDEGAOSHANG、SHANLIANG、ZHENZHI,BINGYICIWEIJICHUQUEDINGZISHENDEMEI”,ERZHEIZHONGMEINAISHI“DAODECHUNJIE、JINGSHENFENGFUHETIPOJIANQUANDEYOULIYUANQUAN。”

SUHUOMULINSIJIRENWEIYINLE、WENXUEZUOPIN、HUIHUADENGDUIMEIYUQIZHEJUDAZUOYONG,ZAITAKANLAI,ZHIDAOERTONGYUEDUNEIXIEFANYINGZIRANMEIHERENXINGMEIDEWENYIZUOPINKEYIKAITUOERTONGDESHIYE,JILIERTONGFENFAXIANGSHANG。DUIHUIHUAZUOPINDEGANZHI,KEYIHUANQIERTONGYONGSECAI、XIANTIAOHESEDIAOPEIHEBIAODAZIJIDESIXIANGGANQINGHEDUIZHOUWEISHIJIEDETAIDU。YINLESHIQINGGAN、GANSHOUHEXINQINGXIZHIBIANHUADEYUYAN,KEYIZENGQIANGERTONGDUIXUANLVDEMINGANXINGHEGANSHOUXING。

SUHUOMULINSIJIZAIQIANGDIAOPEIYANGERTONGSHENMEIXIUYANGDEJICHUSHANG,GENGZHONGSHIYINDAOXUESHENGQUCHUANGZAOMEI。YINWEIDUIMEIDECHUANGZAOYAOYIDUIMEIDEGANSHOUHETIYANWEIJICHU,SUOYIJIAOYUZHEYAOJIAOHUIERTONGQUGUANCHA、QINGTINGHETIYANGEZHONGMEIDESHIWU,SHITAMENNENGGOUQINZIJIECHUZHOUWEISHIJIECUNZAIDEMEIHAOSHIWUBINGNENGJIANGZISHENDESIXIANG、QINGGANDENGQINGZHUZAISUOJIANSUOWENDEMEIDESHIWUZHIZHONG。TONGSHIJIAOYUZHEYAOYIXIANMINGDECHONGMANQINGGANDEYUYANBATAMENSUOGANZHIDEZHOUWEISHIJIEDEMEIJIESHICHULAI,QUGANRANXUESHENG,JIEYITIGAOTAMENDEWENHUAXIUYANG,JINERTIGAOQIDUIMEIDECHUANGZAOSHUIPING。

WU、SUHUOMULINSIJIDELISHIDIWEIYUPINGJIA

SUHUOMULINSIJISHIQIANSULIANJIAOYUJIAZHONGTONGGUOLILUNYUSHIJIANXIANGJIEHEDEDAOLULAIFAZHANJIAOYUKEXUEDEGUANGHUIDIANXING。TADEJIAOGAIJINGYANHETADEJIAOYUSIXIANGSHIFUHEDANGDAIJIAOYUFAZHANDEYIBANYAOQIUDE。TADUIJIAOYUSHIYEDEWUSIFENGXIANJINGSHEN,SHITAQUDECHENGGONGDELILIANGYUANQUAN;TADUILILUNWENTIDEQINFEN、QIUSHIDETANSUOJINGSHEN,SHITAHUODELEZHONGDADELILUNJIANSHU。SUHUOMULINSIJIDECHONGGAORENPINHEZHIXUEJINGSHEN,SHIYIQIEJIAOYUSHIJIANGONGZUOZHEHELILUNGONGZUOZHEXUEXIDEBANGYANG。

 

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FUZEBUMEN:XIAOKEYANCHU

LURUSHIJIAN:2013-3-21