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中外教育思想汇编八:赞可夫的教学发展理论

发布时间:2013-03-21

 

LIE·FU·ZANKEFUSHIYUANSULIANXINLIXUEJIA、JIAOYUKEXUEBOSHI。TABABISHENGJINGLIXIANJILE“JIAOXUEYUFAZHANWENTI”DESHIYANYANJIU。TAXIANHOUFABIAOLE《JIAOXUELUNYUSHENGHUO》、《HEJIAOSHIDETANHUA》DENGJIAOYULILUNZHUANZHU150YUZHONG。TATONGGUOJIAOXUESHIYANWANZHENGDITICHULE“JIAOXUEYUFAZHANWENTI”LILUN,GOUJIANLE“SHIYANJIAOXUELUNTIXI”。TADUIJIAOXUEYUFAZHANDEGUANXIZUOCHULEKEXUEDEJIESHIHEQUEQIEDELUNZHENG,BINGDUIRUHECHUANGSHEZUIJIADEJIAOXUETIXI,CUJINXUESHENGDEYIBANFAZHAN,ZUOCHULEJINGPIDELUNSHU。YIBANFAZHANSHITAZHENGGEJIAOXUESIXIANGDEHEXIN。QINEIHANZHUYAOBAOKUO:

YI、FAZHANGUANNIANTIXIANCHUANGXINXING

FAZHANGUANNIANDECHAOQIANSHIZANKEFUJIAOXUEFAZHANSIXIANGDEZHONGYAOTEZHENG,TAZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAILIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHISHIYINGXING。ZANKEFUQIANGDIAOXUEXIAODEJIAOYUGAIGEBIXUZAISHEHUIDAHUANJINGZHONGJINXINGGOUSI,XUEXIAOJIAOYUBIXUSHIYINGSHEHUIDEFAZHAN。TARENWEIWEILESHIYINGKEJIJINBUYUSHEHUIDEFAZHAN,WEILETANXUNYOUXIAOJIAOYUDETUJING,TANXUNSHIXIANTUJINGDEFANGFA,JIUBIXUYANJIUJIAOXUEYUFAZHAN。ERSHIZHENGTIXING。ZAIZANKEFUJIAOXUELILUNTICHUZHIQIANDEFAZHANLILUN,YIBANZHIQIANGDIAONEIXIEYURENZHIGUOCHENGZHIJIEXIANGGUANDEXINLIYINSU,JIGUANCHA、JIYI、XIANGXIANGSIWEINENGLIDEFAZHANJISHENGLIJIZHIDECHENGSHU;ERZANKEFUTICHULEXUESHENGDEZHENGTIFAZHANDESIXIANG,ZHEIJUYOUYIDINGDECHUANGXINXING。ZANKEFUTICHUDEYIBANFAZHANJIBAOKUOERTONGDESHENTIFAZHAN,YEBAOKUOERTONGDEXINLIFAZHAN;ZAIERTONGXINLIFAZHANFANGMIAN,JIBAOKUOZHILIYINSUDEFAZHAN,YEBAOKUOQINGYILINGYUDENGFEIZISHENDEQINGYIHUODONG。ERQINGYIHUODONGDEMOUZHONGZHUANGTAI,JIKENENGCUSHIZHILIHUODONGJIJIZHANKAI,YEKENENGZUYIJIJIDEZHILIHUODONG。TAZAISANQIANGDIAO,JIAOXUEGUOCHENGZHONG“JIAOXUEFAYIDANCHUJIXUESHENGDEQINGXUHEYIZHILINGYU,CHUJIXUESHENGDEJINGSHENXUYAO,ZHEIZHONGJIAOXUEFANGFAJIUNENGFAHUIGAODUYOUXIAODEZUOYONG。”TAHAIZHICHU,JIAOXUEBIXUDAIDONGXUESHENGGEXINGXINLIZHENGTIFAZHAN,ZHENGTIDEFAZHANXIAOGUOYUANYUANGAOYUBUFENDEDANDAYIDEFAZHANXIAOGUO。

ER、FAZHANMUBIAOTIXIANCHIXUXING

DUIYUFAZHANMUBIAODECHIXUXING,ZANKEFUCONGSANGEFANGMIANJINXINGLELUNSHU。SHOUXIAN,TAQIANGDIAOMUBIAODEZUIJIAXING,ZHEISHIMUBIAOCHIXUXINGDEJUTITIXIAN。TAYAOQIUJIAOXUEJINZUIDAKENENGKAIFAXUESHENGQIANNENG,SHI“XUESHENGZAIYIBANFAZHANSHANGDADAOJINKENENGBIJIAOGAODEXIAOGUO。”TATICHU“YAODADATIGAOJIAOXUEXIAOGUO,YICUJINXUESHENGDEYIBANFAZHAN。”QICI,TAQIANGDIAOMUBIAODEJIEDUANXING,ZHEISHIMUBIAOCHIXUXINGDEGUANJIAN。TAJICHENGHEFAZHANLEXINLIXUEJIAWEIGUOCIJIDEXUESHUO,BAFAZHANFENWEIXIANYOUFAZHANSHUIPINGYUQIANZAIFAZHANSHUIPINGLIANGGEJIEDUAN。HOUYIZHONGFAZHANSHUIPINGSHIZHINEIXIEZHENGCHUYUXINGCHENGZHUANGTAI,HAIMEIYOUCHENGSHUDANZHENGZAIZOUXIANGCHENGSHUDEXINLIJIZHI。ZANKEFUZHUZHANGBAJIAOXUEJIANLIZAIFAZHANQUSHANG,TADUOCIZHICHU,ZHIYOUDANGJIAOXUEZOUZAIFAZHANDEQIANMIANSHI,ZHEIZHONGJIAOXUECAISHIHAODEJIAOXUE。TARENWEIJIAOXUEBIXUCHENGWEIFAZHANDEYUANQUAN。ZAICI,TAQIANGDIAOSHIXIANMUBIAODECAOZUOXING,ZHEISHIMUBIAOCHIXUXINGDEJICHU。TACONGJIAOXUELUNCHUFA,CHUANGZAOXINGDIBAXUESHENGFAZHANFENJIECHENGGUANCHAHUODONG、SIWEIHUODONG、SHIJICAOZUOSANGEHUODONGDANWEI,ZHEISANZHONGHUODONGXIANGHULIANXIHEXIANGFUXIANGCHENG,CONGMEIYIZHONGHUODONGZHONGDOUNENGQUANMIANFANYINGCHUXUESHENGYIBANFAZHANDEJINCHENG。

SAN、FAZHANDUIXIANGTIXIANQUANTIXING

SHIBANSHANGSUOYOUXUESHENG(BAOKUOZUICHADEXUESHENG)DOUDEDAOYIBANFAZHANSHIZANKEFUJIAOXUEFAZHANSIXIANGDEJINGSUI。ZHUYAOBIAOXIAN:(1)BAMIANXIANGQUANTIXUESHENGZUOWEITATICHUDESUOYOUJIAOXUEYUANZEDECHUFADIANHEGUISU。TAFANFUQIANGDIAO,SUOYOUDEXUESHENG,BAOKUOCHASHENGDOUBIXUTONGGUOJIAOXUEDEDAOYIBANFAZHAN;(2)BIXUJIAQIANGDUIHOUJINSHENGDECHENGYINFENXI,QIESHIZUOHAOZHUANHUAGONGZUO。TARENWEI,HOUJINSHENGZHISUOYIZAIXUEXISHANGLUOHOU,YUANYINSHISHIFENFUZADE。TACONGXINLIXUEDEJIAODU,DUIHOUJINSHENGJINXINGLESHIYANYANJIU,DECHUZHEIYANGDEJIELUN:HOUJINSHENGZAIQINGGAN、YIZHI、QINGXUFANGMIAN,YOU“ZIWOZHONGXINZHUYIDEBIAOXIAN”;ZAIXUEXIDONGJIFANGMIAN,QUEFAXUEXIDEYUANWANG,QIUZHIYUJIAODI;ZAIRENZHIFANGMIAN,GUANCHALIJICHA,JINGCHANG“SHIERBUJIAN”、“TINGERBUWEN”。TATICHUZHUANHUAHOUJINSHENGZUIYOUXIAODEFANGFASHI“HUALIQIZAITAMENDEFAZHANSHANGBUDUANDIXIAGONGFU”,CONGERYENENGGOUSHI“TAMENZAIZHANGWOZHISHIHEJIQIAOFANGMIANQUDELIANGHAODECHENGJI。”ZHEIYANG,CAINENGXIAOMIEJIAOYUDE“FEIPIN”HE“CIPIN”;(3)QUBIEDUIDAI,SHISHICHAYIJIAOXUE。ZANKEFUTICHU,SHIQUANBANXUESHENGDOUDEDAOFAZHAN,BUSHIJIANGXUESHENGDESHUIPINGLAGAOJIUDI,SHIZHIYIBANQI,JIANGDIJIAOXUEYAOQIU,XIANZHIYOUDENGSHENGDEFAZHAN,ERSHIRANGYOUDENGSHENG、ZHONGDENGSHENG、HOUJINSHENGDOUZAIZIJIDEZHILIQIDIANSHANG,ANZHAOZIJIDEZUIDAKENENGXING,DEDAOZUILIXIANG、ZUICHONGFENDEFAZHAN。JIAOSHIZAIJIAOXUEZHONGBIXU“QUBIEDUIDAI”,LIQIUJIANGXIANGTONGHUOBUTONGDEJIAOXUENEIRONG,JIANLIZAIMEIGEXUESHENGBUTONGDEZUIJINFAZHANQUSHANG。

SI、FAZHANDONGLITIXIANZHUTIXING

ZANKEFUBAYIBANFAZHANKANZUOWEIXUESHENGXINLITEZHENGNEIBUBIRANDEZISHENYUNDONG,YINERTADEJIAOXUESIXIANGZHONGSHENTOUZHEXUESHENGSHIXUEXIZHUTIZHEIYIZHIDAOSIXIANG。(1)ZHUZHONGJIFAXUESHENGDENEIBUYOUYIN。ZANKEFURENWEI,“WAIBUCIJI”DEFANGFAZHINENGZAIDUANSHIJIANNEIYOUXIAO,WUFABAOCHIXUESHENGXUEXIDONGJIDEWENDINGXINGHECHIJIU。YINCI,TAZHUZHANGZAIJIAOXUEZHONGYAOZHEZHONGJIFAXUESHENGXUEXIDE“NEIBUYOUYIN”,ZHEISHITIGAOJIAOXUEXIAOGUOZUIZHONGYAODETIAOJIANZHIYI。SUOWEIJIFA“NEIBUYOUYIN”,JIUSHIHUANQIXUESHENGYUNZANGZAIXINLINGSHENCHUKEQIUZHISHIDEYUANWANG,SHITAXINGCHENGYIZHONGPAINANJIEYI、XUNGENJIUDIDEQIANGLIEDETANQIUXINLI,CONGERJIJIZHUDONGDITOURUXUEXI。(2)ZHUZHONGYINDAOXUESHENG“GEXINGZIRANDECHENGZHANG”。ZANKEFUFANDUI“QIANZHEERTONGZOU”DECHUANTONGJIAOXUELAOLU。TARENWEI,SUOWEIZHENZHENGDEJIAOYUJIUSHIZHIBUJINRANGERTONGWANCHENGJIAOSHIDEYAOQIU,ERQIESHITAMENDEGEXING、TAMENDEJINGSHENSHENGHUODEDAOZIRANDECHENGZHANG。TAYOURENWEI,KENEIWAIXUESHENGJITIDECHAOQIPENGBO、FENGFUDUOCAIDESHENGHUO,SHICUSHIMEIYIGEXUESHENG“KAIHUAJIEGUODETIAOJIAN”。TADUOCIQIANGDIAOYAOJIAOHUIXUESHENGZIJI“LIJIEXUEXIGUOCHENG”,SHIXUESHENGZHANGWOXUEXIFANGFAHESIKAOFANGFA;YAOYANJIUXUESHENG“GEZHONGGEYANGDESIWEIXINGSHI”,JUYIYINDAOTAMENXUEHUIKAIDONGNAOJIN,CHENGWEIJIJIXUEXIDEZHUREN。(3)ZHUZHONGSHISHENGHEZUO。ZANKEFUYIZUNZHONGXUESHENGZHUTIJIAZHIWEIHEXIN,JIANLIDUTEDEXINJIAOXUEFATIXI。ZHEIGETIXICHONGFENZHUZHONGSHISHENGZHIJIANZHENCHENGDEHEZUO。TAZHICHU,ZHIYOUZAISHULILEJIAOSHIYUERTONGZHIJIANHEQUANBANXUESHENGZHIJIANHUXIANGXINRENDETESHUQIFENDETIAOJIANXIA,CAINENGCONGSHIJISHANGGUANCHEXINDEJIAOXUELUNYUANZE。

WU、FAZHANCELVETIXIANDUOYUANXING

ANZHAOZANKEFUDEYIJIANJIAOXUECELVEYINGSHILINGHUODUOYUANDE,ZAIJIAOXUEGUOCHENGZHONG,JIAOSHIYAOGENJUBUTONGLEIXINGDEKEHEBUTONGDEJIAOXUENEIRONGCAIYONGBUTONGDEJIAOXUECELVE;JIUSHIZAITONGYILEIXING、TONGYIJIEKEZHONG,YEYINGGAIGENJUJIAOXUENEIRONGDEBIANHUAHEXUESHENGQINGXUDEZHUANHUAN,SUIJIYINGBIANDIGENGHUANXIANGYINGDEJIAOXUECELVE。ZHIYOUZHEIYANG,CAINENGBUDUANDISHIXUESHENGCHANSHENGXINXIANGAN,ZAIGAOANGDEQINGXUHEQINGSONGYUKUAIDEFENWEIZHONGXUEXI,TIGAOXUEXIXIAOLV。DANZANKEFUYOURENWEI,JIAOSHIWULUNCAIYONGHEZHONGJIAOXUECELVE,DOUBIXUZHEZHONGFAJUEXUESHENGDEQIANLI,JINKENENGWEITAMENTIGONGSHENKEGUANGFANDEZHISHIBEIJING,KAIPIXINZHIXUNLIANDEGUANGKUOTIANDI,ZUIDAXIANDUMANZUXUESHENGZAIZHANGWOZHISHIHEYIBANFAZHANFANGMIANBUDUANZENGZHANGDEXUYAO,JIAKUAIXUESHENGYIBANFAZHANDEJINCHENG。

 

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LURUSHIJIAN:2013-3-21